Criteria and Symptoms

Consult Your Doctor

Diabetes can only be diagnosed by your doctor. If you detect diabetes early, you can lower your risk of complications. Check to see if you have any of these common symptoms1 of type 2 diabetes:
Frequent urination
Excessive thirst or hunger
Unusual weight loss
Sudden changes in vision, such as blurred vision
Tingling or numbness in the hands or feet
Fatigue or irritability
Very dry skin
Sores, cuts, and bruises that heal slowly
Frequent or recurring infections
 
If you have one or more of these symptoms, see your doctor right away. People with type 2 diabetes can also exhibit no symptoms, so it is important to get tested and take preventative action, especially if you are overweight or have a family history of the disease. Even if you are otherwise healthy, getting regular check-ups can help you diagnose any health issues you have more quickly.
 
Your doctor can order the following tests to check if you are diabetic or “pre-diabetic,” which means you have abnormally high blood sugar and are at high risk of becoming diabetic:2
•Fasting blood glucose level test:
ο Diabetic: reading higher than 7.0 mmol/L (or 126 mg/dL) two times
Hemoglobin A1c test: 
ο Normal: less than 5.7%
ο Pre-diabetic: 5.7% - 6.4%
ο Diabetic: 6.5% or higher
Oral glucose tolerance test:
ο Diabetic: higher than 11.1 mmol/L (or 200 mg/dL) after 2 hours.
 
References:
1 Diabetes. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Web site. http://www.cdc.gov/media/presskits/aahd/diabetes.pdf. Accessed August 12, 2013.
2 Diabetes. MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia Web site. http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/001214.htm. Updated June 27, 2012. Accessed November 20, 2013.